Ice Fingers of Death!

Y'know those times when you're doing something simple, like washing your dog, staring at waves or snorkeling on the Maine coast, and you suddenly find yourself captivated and slightly bewildered by the impossibly intricate nature of fluid dynamics?

Maybe it's just me.

Fluids--that is, liquids and gases--are amazing things, with movements so ridiculously complex that some scientists spend their whole lives trying to figure them out, while the rest of us take them completely for granted. The fluid nature of water, air, gasoline, or even crowds of people, not only allows us to use things like pipes and boats and airplanes, but it also allows us to do little things, like breathe. Or exist.

But, much as I am eager to dive into the world of fluid dynamics and the way that gasses and liquids move around us and each other, I really just want to explore one concept that I've just learned about: the brinicle.

Now, Sir David Attenborough (as always) gives an informative and poetic basic description of what's going on here, but after watching this clip, I wanted to know more. What exactly is going on here?

So let's start with the basics. We all know that water freezes, and that fresh water, at 1 atmosphere of pressure, freezes at 32˚F/0˚C/273.15 K. Seawater, however, has a slightly lower freezing temperature, due to the inclusion of salt, which interferes with the ability of water molecules to crystallize together (there's a good explanation and doohickey to explain how that works here). With a greater concentration of salt molecules in the water, the freezing point drops, so saltier water can get below 0˚ without freezing. Because the saltier water has all those salt ions dissolved in it, it becomes denser as well, so salty water sinks below less-salty water.

Water also happens to be one of the only things that is denser as a liquid than it is as a solid. That means that solid water will float on the surface of liquid water, because of the shape of the lattice that frozen water molecules form. That lattice doesn't allow for things like pesky salt ions to get in the way, so ice, even from seawater, is fresher than the water it came from. (And since ice forms on the top of water and not on the bottom, animals like frogs and turtles can hang out in the mud at the bottom of a pond all winter without becoming frogcubes and turtlecicles.)

Taking that into the real world, when it gets cold enough for ice to start forming in the ocean, all the water molecules start connecting up and pushing out the salt ions. Those salt ions collect in liquid water at the surface, creating pools of increasingly salty water that sit on top of the ice. Eventually that super-salty water, or brine, finds its way down through the ice in little tunnels called brine channels. If conditions are right, those channels will all end up in the same spot, creating a plume of sinking brine similar to a column of rising smoke. Since it's also heavier than the seawater under the ice, when it gets to the bottom of the sheet of ice, it keeps sinking.

But here's the neat thing: since that brine has been traveling through an ice sheet, it's just as cold as the ice, but the salt has kept it from freezing. So when it runs into the water below, that relatively fresher water freezes, creating a tube of crystals around the outflowing brine. As you see in the video, this tube grows and grows as the brine travels out of it, kind of like a stream of water building its own hose: a briny icicle, or brinicle.

If the ice is forming at the right rate, the water isn't moving around too much under the ice, and the sheet is in shallow enough water, you can get a brinicle that extends all the way to the seafloor. when it hits the bottom, it does the same thing that any other dense fluid would do: roll downhill. Even if a full brinicle didn't form, a pool of brine would collect in a low spot at the seafloor, if only until conditions changed and it dissipated. You can see this downhill travel happening in the video, except in this case, it becomes an icy stream of death!

Brinicle formation a pretty amazing phenomenon, and the conditions required to form one as big as this one are pretty unique. How fortunate that the cameramen from the BBC were able to catch it, but also, you really gotta give them mad props for diving in this climate. Setting up a time-lapse movie can be challenging on land, so imagine having to do it under an ice sheet in (literally) freezing-cold water, hauling heavy equipment a good distance from your diving hole while Weddell seals frequently zip by, knocking down your cameras and the brinicles you're trying to film. Mad props to these guys:

Some day when I have no use for a wife, kids, or dogs, I'm going to be a filmmaker traveling around the world collecting natural history footage for the BBC and hanging out with chipper Scotsmen:


For more info, check out these resources:
The BBC's article about filming brinicles
Wikipedia's info on brinicles
Modeling brinicle formation in a lab
How salt affects the formation of ice
How zombie frogs survive winter


The most advanced creatures on (and off) Earth

There is such a thing as a beneficial meandering about the internets, and today is no exception. It started out simply enough, with my brother sending me a link to a BoingBoing video of an octopus traveling across land:

While I've certainly heard about this happening, I'd never seen it before, and immediately it made me wonder about this octopus' decision to pull itself along mantle-first. I'd always expected that one would do the pulling with one's legs, and drag the big mantle behind, but watching this, it makes me think: "Well, that makes sense... when an octopus escapes in the water, it scoots itself along with the mantle in front, so perhaps it takes the same approach when escaping from predators on land." Maybe when they take over the world, they'll figure out that it's easier to go legs-first...

In any event, that led to a link to SciAm's new cephaloblog, The Octopus Chronicles, which sets out to catalog all the wicked cool stuff going on in current research around octopuses. They have a great little bit about the new discovery of camouflage adaptations in mesopelagic octopuses. (I especially liked the idea that these little guys' response to detection, indicated by persistent blue light, was to hide their heads inside their bodies... reminds me of one time when I was trying to avoid getting in trouble by hiding behind a tree while wearing a bright red jacket. Ineffectual, to say the least. But I digress...)

Fortunately, SciAm's page had a link to a new video produced by NASA and the International Space Station. I had heard that a good number of our astronauts were not only super-driven, super-nerdy and super-lucky, but also pretty good photographers. What I didn't know is that some of them are really good photographers, with a penchant for time-lapse videos like this one (fullscreen HD is a must):

Earth | Time Lapse View from Space, Fly Over | NASA, ISS from Michael König on Vimeo.

This immediately made me think "Well of course, if you're doing things like flying around in space operating robotic arms and watching atmospheric events, you must be listening to Ambient or Microhouse"... but that's not true, of course. Several months in a small space station, and you must listen to at least a little bit of Peter Gabriel, especially when you're returning back to terra firma:

Time Lapse From Space - Literally. The Journey Home. from Fragile Oasis on Vimeo.

I've always loved the idea of going to space, and I have dreams of hosting an episode or two of Nerdy Jobs from the International Space Station, but in the mean time, thank goodness our super-driven super-nerdy super-lucky guys and gals are also great ambassadors, working hard to bring that experience back to Earth. Through the use of the internet, with high-quality videos, Twitter feeds (who knew that #fromspace was a literal hashtag?) and even video podcasts (Hehe... "Open the podcast bay doors, HAL"), our scientists in the thermosphere are working hard to connect us groundlings with the things one can learn from floating about the world at around 225 miles up:

Cupola Corner Episode 5 - Ron Garan Conversation With Satoshi Furukawa from Fragile Oasis on Vimeo.

I'm excited to be on this planet. Let's keep it healthy so the octopuses can take it over.



picture this II

A while back I blogged/ran a thought experiment/slightly panicked about the size of the known universe, and I have to say, even after that great video, I still haven't gained a complete mental picture of the size of the universe (I'm working on it, though... I'm at about 85%).

Another tool I can now use, and I'm happy to share with you, is a size comparison of different celestial objects, from moons to planets to stars. It was a bit startling to me to realize that, even though our sun is ridiculously huge compared to our planet, it is absolutely minuscule compared to some of the other things out there.

Prepare to have your mind blown again, hopefully with slightly less panic this time. It's yet another piece of evidence to suggest that astronomers must examine the fascinating cosmos all night, only to come home slightly depressed about the triviality of electric bills and changing the oil on their 15 year-old Corollas.

(Little-known fact: all celestial bodies actually have small labels just below them. This is how astronomers are able to keep track of so many.)



the majestic plastic bag

Just saw an amazing video that I want to share with everyone... this is the kind of documentary I want to make:


holy cuss awesomeness!

I just found out that squid, those amazing funky-shaped demons that can make themselves invisible have another superpower that makes them infinitely cooler... they can fly!

The other day at a job interview, the old question "if you could be any kind of animal, what would it be?" came up. After thinking for a moment, I said "a duck," because, naturally, they can swim, they can walk and they can fly, and I think that combination is pretty sweet. I may have to call that interviewer back now, because I want to change my answer to "squid."

From SciAm:

With her husband and fellow biologist Michael Robinson, Maciá identified the airborne cephalopod as a Caribbean reef squid (Sepioteuthis sepioidea)—a lithe, torpedo-shaped critter with long, undulating fins. They think the squid was startled by the noise of the boat's outboard engine and estimated that the 20-centimeter-long mollusk reached a height of two meters above the water and flew a total distance of 10 meters—50 times its body length. What's more, the squid extended its fins and flared its tentacles in a radial pattern while airborne, as though guiding its flight.
"It was doing this weird thing with its arms where it had them spread out almost in a circle," recalls Maciá, who teaches at Barry University in Florida. "It had its fins kind of flared out as much as it could—it really looked liked it was flying. It hadn't accidentally flopped out of the water; it was maintaining its posture in a certain way. It was doing something active."

"From our observations it seemed like squid engage in behaviors to prolong their flight," Maciá says. "One of our co-authors saw them actually flapping their fins. Some people have seen them jetting water while in flight. We felt that 'flight' is more appropriate because it implies something active."

The aerodynamic benefit an airborne squid derives from flapping fins and spiraled tentacles is not clear, but some researchers hypothesize that these behaviors provide extra lift and help stabilize the squid when out of its primary element. In the water some squid spread their tentacles into a weblike pattern that facilitates swimming backward—a trick they could try to mimic in the air to gain an extra set of wings, some scientists have proposed. And rapidly changing the position of the tentacles could even function as a kind of brake.

Awesome. This creates a close contest between the squid and the octopus as the coolest animals ever. They both can swim, and octopuses can walk, but flying is key: but for that giant flying octopus that attacked Japan two years ago, it'd be a dealbreaker.